Write an essay on rural and urban poverty

Rural-urban migration is facilitated by pull and push factors that forces people influx from countryside to cities. We will write a custom essay sample on Causes of Rural-Urban Migration or any similar topic only for you. Push factors includes; drought, famine, natural disaster, poor living conditions like housing, healthcare and education, agricultural change, unemployment, war and conflict. Pull factors includes; employment, higher incomes, better healthcare and education, urban facilities and way of life and protection from war and conflict.

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Although rural-urban migration is an integral part of development it is significant for people to understand its causes and consequence for formulation and implementation of effective policies to encourage economic growth. Rural urban migration being flexible and dynamic phenomena cause diversification with a certain degree of commitment.

Introduction to urban poverty

People migration links people transferring them from low opportunities to high opportunities. Rural-urban migration is prevalent in developing countries with its degree varying from country to country. Rural-urban migration influences urban growth with expansion of cities and towns covering greater land. Push factors may include drought, famine, natural disaster, poor living conditions like housing, healthcare and education, agricultural change, unemployment, war and conflict.

Pull factors include employment, higher incomes, better healthcare and education, urban facilities and way of life and protection from war and conflict Goldscheider, Cause of Rural-Urban Migration Costs of rural-urban migration outweigh benefits resulting in expansion of cities and towns thus excessive urbanization. Urban planners and decision makers are more concerned with causes and consequences of rural-urban migration and their relationship with economic growth and urbanization. Those people living in rural areas are willingly and unwillingly part of the economic system.

Movement of people from rural areas to urban center is triggered by voluntary and involuntary forces.

Urban poverty Essay

Involuntary are the factors that force people to migrate with no choice but to move this are the push factors. Migration Forces People may involuntary move from rural to urban areas as a result of family disagreements, wars, conflicts, draught, famine and political strife. This factors forces people to seek refuge in urban areas where they can have access to security, food and far from political strife.

Voluntary factors such as better employment opportunities force people to move to urban areas. The quality of employment in urban areas is better than in rural. In rural areas people have little education and their payment is low. Those who have migrated to urban areas have gained incentives through better and well paying jobs. Housing conditions in rural areas is worse compared with urban areas; people may voluntarily decide to move to urban areas to have access to better living conditions such as better healthcares, better education and housing McCatty, 8.

Rural land tenure and pattern of inheritance is another factor resulting in voluntary rural urban migration. This cause problem if land tenure is communal whereby you find that land is owned by group of people thus individual having no authority to protect or own the land.

This cause conflict during land sharing forcing many people to be landless thus opting to move to urban centers. Rural social structure and cultural values may cause conflict among rural population forcing some people to move to urban areas. Rural people when offered with better options of earning living which are not demanding like rural farming and which is more financially rewarding, they are likely to accept. Depending on the country, farming gives seasonal employment with no enough income to sustain rural people thus being forced to move to urban areas in search for better and well paying jobs McCatty, 9.

82. To solve problems in cities, businesses should move to rural areas

Issues faced in Rural Areas — Changes in educational system as a result of what is being taught in school vary from their traditional norms. In rural areas, cultural values and norms undergo changes due to influence from foreign entities and missionaries. In rural areas people experience low and high global economy due to drop of prices thus their sustainability being influenced.

During economic recession they are the first people to be affected. This triggers their movement from rural to urban for search of better opportunities.

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People in rural areas are exposed to films, radio programs and recent television series from cities. When exposed to this urban life, their living conditions decline due to exploitation of resource in need of living like those in urban areas. Many people are not able to cope with this situation in rural areas and they opt for urban areas where they can have better life with access to all these facilities.

Living condition for most rural people have changed for better with improved medical care, improved health and longevity which has contributed to increase in population in rural areas thus pressure on the limited resources.


These forces some people especially young incase the land ownership in the rural was communal they move to urban centers where they can be accommodate without congestion McCatty, 7. Media influence has made people recognize their state of poverty. In our work on urban poverty, we collaborate with researchers, practitioners and civil society organisations, including those that represent urban poor groups in Africa and Asia. More in this collection.

Skip to main content. Around a billion urban dwellers live in informal settlements, most of which are affected by: Poor quality, overcrowded housing Risk of forceful eviction Lack of safe, readily available, water supplies Poor provision for sanitation, drainage and solid waste collection Lack of access to healthcare, emergency services and policing Difficulty accessing government schools, and Locations at high risk of disasters and with risk levels increasing because of climate change.

Our focus for the next five years IIED is working to reduce urban poverty, and to change misleading views about urbanisation and rural change. Recognise the central role of local governments and representative organisations and federations of the urban poor in reducing urban poverty. We will encourage and support the right of such groups to be engaged in setting and monitoring goals and targets, and in co-producing basic services.


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Successful examples will encourage other local governments to change their approaches. Produce knowledge on how secure tenure, basic services and housing are being provided to low-income households; and analyse the effectiveness of these strategies.

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Continue to develop our understanding of how women, men and children from low-income households view poverty, and of how they develop their priorities. News and comment Updates on this project. Kampala sets example for how cities can help refugees Blog, June Connecting cities to basins.